Flu, anti-malaria, arthritis and HIV medication: The promising therapies being tested on coronavirus patients around the world - but how many are the NHS trying? The World Health Organization has said it will launch an international clinical trial to try and find a treatment for the coronavirus. Countries around the world will test remdesivir; HIV drug combination lopinavir and ritonavir; and chloroquine, an antimalarial, Stat News reported.
The drugs are already licensed for human use so would be much quicker to get approved and manufactured than a new one. And they have all been tested by doctors in China, with varying results. The drugs will be tested alongside other patients receiving normal hospital care so the two can be compared. NHS hospitals are coming under growing pressure to use experimental drugs to try and treat patients infected with the coronavirus. Doctors and pharmaceutical firms around the world are scrambling to find a drug that can stop the deadly virus, which has now killed more than 8, people.
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Medicines already in use for conditions ranging from HIV to rheumatoid arthritis, malaria, the flu and even Ebola are serious contenders and are being tested to see how they could help patients infected with COVID The Government has refused to confirm if any are being tested out on the 2, coronavirus patients in the UK — the NHS advises anyone with troublesome symptoms to take paracetamol and rest at home unless they feel life-threateningly ill.
But its medicines regulator last month banned companies from exporting three drugs — for HIV and malaria — in a bid to protect the UK's stocks of them.
All three have been used in experimental treatments by doctors in China, raising the prospect of Britain doing the same. Here, MailOnline reveals some of the drugs that experts believe have potential. Chloroquine phosphate Malaria. It is sold under the brand name Arlan.
Experts at the University of Palermo in Italy, as well as a team in Israel, collated the research on the drug in treating the coronavirus. In their report, they claimed officials in the Netherlands already suggest treating critically-ill patients with the drug. University of Minnesota experts are planning to test whether the drug — sometimes given to treat lupus and arthritis — prevents the progression of COVID Hydroxychloroquine Malaria.
Chinese scientists investigating the other form of chloroquine penned a letter to a prestigious journal saying its 'less toxic' derivative may also help. In the comment to Cell Discovery — owned by publisher Nature, they said it shares similar chemical structures and mechanisms.
The team of experts added: 'It is easy to conjure up the idea that hydroxychloroquine may be a potent candidate to treat infection by SARS-CoV But the Wuhan Institute of Virology scientists admitted they are still lacking evidence to prove it is as effective as chloroquine phosphate. Hydroxychloroquine, sold under the brand name Plaquenil, causes side effects such as skin rashes, nausea, diarrhoea and headaches.
Drug giant Sanofi carried out a study on 24 patients, which the French government described as 'promising'.
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Results showed three quarters of patients treated with the drug were cleared of the virus within six days. None of the placebo group were treated. The drug has shown promise as a way of tackling coronavirus, scientists say, because it is able to bind to the outside of the coronavirus. It is a class of drug called a protease inhibitor, which essentially stick to an enzyme on a virus which is vital to the virus reproducing. By doing this it blocks the process the virus would normally use to clone itself and spread the infection further.
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Chinese media reported that the drug was successfully used to cure patients with the coronavirus, but the reports have not been scientifically proven. The drug is available on the NHS and was prescribed around 1, times in , either as Kaletra or ritonavir on its own. Favipiravir flu. Favipiravir is the active ingredient in a flu drug called Avigan which is sold in Japan. Doctors in China have claimed it was 'clearly effective' in patients with the coronavirus after they gave it to 80 people in the cities of Wuhan and Shenzen.
They said it sped up patients' recovery, reduced lung damage and did not cause any obvious side effects. It is also used to treat yellow fever and foot-and-mouth. According to local media, patients who were given the medicine in Shenzhen had negative results for the coronavirus an average of four days after being diagnosed.
This compared with 11 days for those who were not treated with the drug. It is not clear what the results were of the trials in Wuhan, the worst-hit part of China. The drug is an anti-viral medication which neutralises a vital enzyme that viruses use to reproduce. It is called a RNA polymerase inhibitor. It is not used by the NHS. It's produced by the Japanese company Fujifilm Toyama Chemical. Remdesivir Ebola. Remdesivir is an anti-viral drug that works in essentially the same way as favipiravir — by crippling the RNA polymerase enzyme, stopping a virus from reproducing.
It was developed around 10 years ago by the pharmaceutical company Gilead Sciences with the intention of it destroying the Ebola virus. It was pushed aside, however, when other, better candidates emerged. But it remained an anti-viral drug with the ability to destroy various viruses in lab tests, scientists said. Doctors in the US tried it on three hospitalised coronavirus patients but results were mixed.
Doctors writing in a study led by the Wuhan Institute of Virology, published in the prestigious scientific journal Nature last month, said: 'Our findings reveal that remdesivir [is] highly effective in the control of nCoV infection in vitro. They added that, since the drug is proven to be safe in humans, it 'should be assessed in human patients suffering from the novel coronavirus disease'. Sarilumab Rheumatoid arthritis. Sarilumab, a rheumatoid arthritis drug which is marketed as Kevzara in the US, is set to be trialled on patients in the US. Sarilumab, a rheumatoid arthritis drug which is marketed as Kevzara and is available to be prescribed on the NHS, is set to be trialled on patients in the US.
Pharmaceutical companies Sanofi and Regeneron plan to give the medication to people with the coronavirus to see if it can help calm their immune response.
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The drug works by blocking part of the immune system which can cause inflammation, or swelling, which is overactive in people with rheumatoid arthritis. President Trump is touting the use of two drugs, hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine, to treat the coronavirus. But we want to make sure that the pill that people are taking is safe and effective," Linder said. Medical experts Newsy spoke with say we should be cautious, though, because the research on these drugs is limited at best.
It actually didn't show that those patients did any better or or got better any faster," Linder said. Some are self-medicating with dangerous results. You may then access the website remotely and unlock features for individual accounts. Please read these terms carefully. In consideration of payment of the applicable subscription fee, the AAP is willing to provide access to the Materials to you and, if applicable, your Users as defined below , subject to all of the following terms.
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